Physics (Elective)
RECOMMENDED TEXT FOR B.Sc. SYLLABUS OF PHYSICS IS GENERALLY by David Halliday, ROBERT RESNICK / KENNETH S.KRANE, Publishers John Wiley and Sons, 4^{TH} EDITION (ISBN 0471804576)
Note: The Paper A, B, & C are Subjective and Paper D & E are of Practical. The each Subjective paper is of 50 marks and Paper D & E are of 25 marks each. The Papers are further subdivided into sections
CURRICULUM FOR B.Sc. (PHYSICS)
PAPER: A 50 Marks
SECTIONI
MECHANICS
TOPICS  SCOPES 
VECTOR OPERATIONS:  
Vector in 3 dimensions  Introduction; Direction Cosines; Spherical polar coordinates;
applications 
Vector derivatives and operations  Divergence and curl of a vector, and gradient of a scalar. 
Gradient, Divergence and Curl of a Vector  Physical application of each type; Divergence and Flux of a
vector field, curl and line integral (mutual relation) 
Divergence Theorem, Stokes’ Theorem  Derivation, physical importance and applications to specific
cases. Converting from differential to integral forms 
Reference Book: FIELD AND WAVE ELECTROMAGNETICS (Second Edition) by David K. Cheng, AddisonWesley Series in Electrical Engineering (ISBN 020152820)
Particle Dynamics
Topics  Scopes 
(Advanced applications of Newton’s laws) Dynamics of Uniform motion  Frictional forces: microscopic basis of this force Conical pendulum; the rotor, circular the banked curve. 
Equations of motion.  Deriving kinematics equations X(V), v(t) using integrations. Constant and Non constant Forces and special examples. 
Time dependent forces  Obtaining x(t), v(t) for this case using integration method 
Effect of drag forces on motion  Applying Newton’s Laws to obtain v(t) for the case of motion with time dependent drag(viscous) forces; terminal velocity. Projectile motion/ air resistance. 
Non inertial frames and Pseudo forces  Qualitative discussion to develop understanding. Calculation of pseudo forces for simple cases ( linearly accelerated references frame). Centrifugal force as an example of pseudo force; Carioles force. 
Limitations of Newton’s Laws.  Discussion. 
Suggested level  Ch: 6: Resnick , Halliday and Krane(R.H.K) 
WORK AND ENERGY 

TOPICS  SCOPES 
Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force(1dimension).  (Essentially a review of gradeXII Concepts use of integration technique to calculate work done (e.g. in vibration of a spring obeying Hooks Law) 
Work done by a variable(2dimensional case)  Obtaining general expression force and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity. 
Work energy theorem. General proof Of work energy theorem.  Qualitative Review of work energy 
Power  Theorem. Derivation using integral calculus. Basic formula and applications. 
Reference Frames  Energy changes with respect to observers in different inertial frames. 
Suggested Level:  Ch. 7 of R.H.K. 
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 

Conservative, and non Conservative forces  Definition of either type of force & examples; work done in a closed path.
1D conservative system; force as the gradient of potential energy; applications to the case a spring and force of gravity. 
One dimensional conservative system  Obtaining velocity in terms of U and E ; stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium. Analytic solution for x(t). 
2, 3 dimensional conservative systems  Change in P.E. for motion in 3d force. Force as the gradient of the potentials. Work done in 2, 3 dimensional motion. 
Conservation of energy in a system of particles  Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system 
Suggested Level:  Ch.8 of H.R.K. 
SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 

Two particle system and Generalization to many particle systems.  Centre of mass: Its position velocity and equation of motion 
Centre of mass of solid objects  Calculation of center of mass of solid objects using integral calculus.
Calculating C.M. of, I. Uniform Rod. Cylinder Sphere 
Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass.  Derivation of basic equation; application to motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time). 
Suggested level….  Ch.9 of H.R.K. 
COLLISIONS  
TOPICS  SCOPES 
Elastic Collisions  (a) one dimensions. 
Conservation of momentum during Collision.  (b) Two dimensions (Oblique Collisions) 
Inelastic collision  One and two dimensions 
Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame  Simple applications: obtaining Velocities in c.m. frame. 
Suggested Level  Ch.: 10 of H.R.K. 
ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS  
Overview of rotational Dynamics  Relationships between linear & angular variables; scalar and vector form.
Kinetic energy of rotation; Moment of Inertia. 
Parallel axis theorem  Prove and Illustrate; apply to simple cases 
Determination of moment of inertice of various shapes. Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies.  Equations of rotational motion and effects of application of torques. 
Combined rotational and transnational motion  Rolling without slipping 
Suggested Levels  Ch. 12 of H.R.K 
ANGULAR MOMENTUM  
Angular Velocity  Definition, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque 
Stability of spinning objects  Discussion with examples. 
The spinning Top  Effects of torque on the angular momentum, precessional motion. 
Suggested Level  Ch 13 H.R.K 
GRAVITATION  
Review of basic concepts of gravitation. Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution  Mathematical treatment 
Gravitational Potential Energy  Develop using integration techniques; calculation of escape velocity 
Gravitational field & potential  Develop the idea of field of force 
Universal Gravitational Law  Motion of Planets and Keplers laws. (Derivation & explanation) Motion of satellites. Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion. Qualitative discussion on application of gravitational law to the Galaxy. 
Suggested Levels  Ch 16 of H.R.K 
BULK PROPERTIES OF MATTERS  
Elastic Properties of Matter  Physical basic of elasticity Tension, compression & Shearing
Elastic Modulus; Elastic limit 
Suggested Level  Ch 14 H.R.K 
Fluid Statics  Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere. 
Surface Tension  Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles 
Suggested Level  Ch 17 H.R.K 
Fluid Dynamics  General concepts of fluid flow, streamline and the equation of continuity 
Bernoulli’s Equation  Derivation and some applications such as dynamic lift thrust on a rocket 
Viscosity  Physical basis; obtaining the coefficient of viscosity, practical example of viscosity; fluid flow (Poisenille’s law) 
Suggested Level  Ch 18 R.H.K 
SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY  
Trouble with classical Mechanics  Qualitative discussion of inadequacy or paradoxes in classical ideas of time, length and velocity. 
Postulates of Relativity  Statements and Discussion 
The Lorentz Transformation inverse transformation  Derivation, Assumptions on which derived application of the same Transformation of velocities. 
Consequences of Lorentz transformation  Relativity of time, relativity of length 
Relativistic momentum  Derivation 
Relativistic energy  Derive E=mc^{2} 
Suggested level  Partially covered by Ch: 21 of H.R.K 
SECTIONII
WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS
OSCILLATIONS
Harmonic oscillations  
Simple harmonic oscillation (SHM)  Obtaining and solving the basic equation of motion x(t), v(t), a(t). Energy considerations in SHM 
Application of SHM  Torsional Oscillators; Physical pendulum,
Simple pendulum 
SHM and uniform circular motion
Lissaajous patterns. 
Combinations of Harmonic motion. 
Damped Harmonic Motion  Equation of damped harmonic motion,
Discussion of its solution. 
Forced Oscillations and resonances  Equation of forced oscillation, discussion of its solution. Examples of resonances. 
Suggested level  Ch.:15 of H.R.K 
WAVES
Mechanical waves Travelling waves  Phase velocity of traveling waves; Sinusoidal waves; group speed and dispersion. 
Waves speed  Mechanical analysis 
Wave equation.  Discussion of solution. 
Power and intensity in wave motion.  Derivation and discussion 
Principle of superposition (basic ideas).  Interference of waves, standing waves. Phase changes on reflection; Natural frequency, resonance. 
Suggested level  Ch.: 19 of H. R. K. 
SOUND
Beats Phenomenon  Analytical treatment 
Doppler Effect  Moving source, moving observer, both object and source moving. 
Suggested level  Ch.: 20 of H. R. K. 
LIGHT
Nature of light  Visible light (Physical characteristics) 
Light as an Electromagnetic wave  Speed of light in matter: physical aspect path difference, phase difference etc. 
Suggested level  Ch : 42 H. R. K. 
Interference  
Adding of Electromagnetic waves using phasors.  Coherence of sources; Double slit interference, analytical treatment. 
Interference from thin films Michelson Interferometer  Newton’s rings (analytical treatment).
(Discussion to include use of a compensating plate; Michelson interferometer use in determining velocity of light.) 
Fresenel’s Biprism and its use.  
Suggested level  Ch : 45 H. R. K. 
Diffraction  Difference at single slit; Intensity in single slit diffraction using phasor treatment and analytical treatment using addition of waves. Slit interference & diffraction combined. Diffraction at a circular aperture 
Diffraction from multiple slits  Discussion to include with of the maxima. 
Diffraction grating.  Discussion, use in spectrographs. Dispersion and resolving power of gratings. 
Holography  Qualitative discussion. 
Suggested level  Ch : 46, 47 H. R. K. 
Polarization  Basic definition, production of polarization by polarizing sheets, by reflection, by double refraction and double scattering. 
Description of polarization states  Linear, Circular, elliptic polarization 
Rotation of plane of polarization  Use of Polarimeter. 
Suggested level  Ch : 48 H. R. K. 
PAPER: B 50 Marks
SECTIONI
THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS
TOPIC  SCOPE 
Temperature  
Kinetic theory of the ideal gas,
Work done on an ideal gas 
Review of previous concepts. 
Internal energy of an ideal gas  To include the Equipartition of energy. 
Intermolecular forces.
Quantitative discussion. 
Van der Waals equation of state. 
Suggested level  Ch : 23 H. R. K. 
STATISTICAL MECHANICS  
Statistical, distribution and mean values  Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean free path. 
Distribution of molecular speeds
Distribution of energies 
Maxwell distribution; MaxwellBoltzmann energy distribution; Internal energy of an ideal gas. 
Brownian motion  Qualitative description. Diffusion, conduction and Viscosity 
Suggested level:  Ch: 24 H.R.K. 
HEAT  
Review of previous concepts.  first law of Thermodynamics& its applications 
First law of thermodynamics,
Transfer of heat. 
cyclic and free expansion. 
Suggested level:  Ch 25 H.R.K. 
ENTROPY AND SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNYMICS.
Reversible and irreversible  Definition , discussion. Definition, 
Process, second law.  Heat engine. Refrigerator and second law. 
Cycle; Carnot engines.  Calculation of efficiency of heat engines. 
Thermodynamics temperature scale  Absolute zero: negative temperature, (discussion) 
Entropy ..  Entropy in reversible process
Entropy in irreversible process Entropy and second law Entropy and probability. 
Suggested level  Ch :26H.R.K. 
Low temperature physics  liquification of gases : Joules – Thomason effect. 
SECTIONII
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
TOPICS  SCOPE 
ELECTROSTATICS  
Electric charge
Conductors and Insulators Vector form of Coulomb’s Law. 
(Review of Previous concepts) Coulomb’s law, law for point charges.
Quantization and conservation of charge. (Discussion) 
Suggested level  Ch : 27 H.R.K. 
Electric Field  
Field due to a point charge; due to several point charges, Electric dipole.  
Electric field of continuous charge distribution.  e.g. Ring of charge; disc of charge; infinite line of charge. 
Point Charge in an electric field
Dipole in an electric field 
Torque on and energy of a dipole in uniform field. 
Gauss’s Law  Electric flux; Gauss’s law; (Integral and differential forms) 
Applications of Gauss’s Law (Integral form)  Charged isolated conductors; conductor with a cavity, field near a charged conducting sheet. Field of an infinite line of charge; Field of an infinite sheet of charge. Field of spherical shell. Field of spherical charge distribution. 
Suggested level:  Ch : 29 H.R.K. 
ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL  Potential due to point charge. Potential due to collection of point charges. Potential due to dipole. Electric potential of continuous charge distribution. Equipotential surfaces. 
Calculating the field from the potential  Field as the gradient or derivative of potential. Potential and field inside and outside an isolated conductor 
Suggested level  Ch : 30 H. R. K. 
Capacitors and dielectrics  Capacitance; calculating the electric field in a capacitor. Capacitors of various shapes, cylindrical, spherical etc. Energy stored in an electric field. Energy per unit volume. 
Capacitor with dielectric  Electric field of dielectric
(1) An atomic view (2) Application of Gauss’s Law to capacitor with dielectric. 
Suggested level  Ch: 31 H.R.K. 
ELECTRIC CURRENT  
Electric current  Current density, Resistance, resistivity, conductivity (Microscopic & macroscopic view of resistivity) 
Ohm’s Law  Basic definition. Analogy between current and heat flow. Microscopic view of Ohms Law. 
Energy transfers in an electric circuit  
Semiconductors, Super conductors  Descriptive giving basic idea 
Suggested level  Ch : 32 H.R.K. 
DC CIRCUITS  
Calculating the current in a single loop, multiple loops; voltages at various elements of a loop.  Use of Kirchoff’s 1^{st} and 2^{nd} Law. 
RC circuits.  Growth and decay of charge/ current in an RC circuit. Analytical treatment. 
Suggested Level  Ch 33 H.R.K 
MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS
Magnetic Field, B.  Basic idea. 
Magnetic force on a charged particle magnetic force on a current.  Recall the previous results. Do not derive. 
Torque on a current loop Magnetic dipole  Define Energy of magnetic dipole in field. Discuss quantitatively 
Ampere’s LAW  
BiotSavarts Law  Analytical treatment and applications to a current loop, force on two parallel current changing conductors. 
Ampere’s Law  Integral and differential forms, applications to solenoids and Toroids. (Integral form) 
Suggested Level  Ch : 35 H.R.K 
FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION


Faraday’s Law  Magnetic Flux. Consequences of Faraday’s Law. 
Lenz’s Law  Discussion, Eddy currents etc. 
Motional E.M.F.  Quantitative analysis 
Induced Electric fields  Calculation and applications 
Suggested level  Ch 36 H.R.K 
Magnetic Properties of Matter  
Gauss’s Law for magnetism  Discussing and developing concepts of conservation of magnetic flux 
Differential form of Gauss Law  
Origin of Atomic and Nuclear magnetism  Basic ideas’ Bohr Magnetron 
Magnetization  Defining M. B. u. 
Magnetic Materials  Para magnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism Discussion. Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic materials. 
Suggested level  Ch 37 H.R.K 
INDUCTANCE  
Inductance  Basic definition. Inductance of a Solenoid; Toroid. 
LR Circuits  Growth and decay of current, analytical treatment. 
Energy stored in magnetic field  Derive Energy density and the magnetic field 
Electromagnetic Oscillation  Qualitative discussion
Quantitative analysis using differential equations (without considering damped and forced oscillations) Forced electromagnetic oscillations and resonance 
Suggested Level:  Ch 38 H.R.K 
Alternating current CIRCUITS  AC current in resistive, inductive and capacitive elements. 
Single loop RLC circuit  Analytical expression for time dependent solution Graphical analysis phase angles 
Power in AC circuits  Power Phase angles RMS values power factor 
Transformer  basic transformer equation 
Suggested level:  Ch,39 R.H.K. 
Maxwell’s equations  
Summarizing the electromagnetic equations  Gauss’s law for electromagnetism; Faraday Law; Ampere’s law 
Induced magnetic fields and .Displacement current  Development of concepts, applications. 
Maxwell’s equations..  (integral & differential forms) discussion and implications. 
Suggested level:  Ch:40: H.R.K 
Electromagnetic waves
Generating an electromagnetic wave.  
Traveling waves and Maxwell’s equations  Analytical treatment; obtaining differential form Maxwell’s equation obtaining the velocity of
Light from Maxwell’s equations. 
Energy transport and the Poynting vector..  Analytical treatment and discussion of physical concepts. 
Suggested level:  Ch.41 H.R.K. 
Paper: C 50 Marks
SECTIONI
Electronics
Semiconductor materials  Idea of energy bands and energy gaps (qualitative Ptype, Ntype material. 
Junction diode  Structure, Characteristics and Application as rectifiers 
Transistor  basic structure and operation 
Transistor biasing..  Biasing for amplifiers; Characteristics of common base, Common emitter, Common collector, Load line, Operating point, Hybrid parameters. 
Transistor as an amplifier  Common emitter mode. 
Amplification with feedback oscillators.  Positive & negative feedback Oscillators. Multivibrators. 
Logic Gates  OR, AND, NOT , NAND, NOR and their basic applications. 
Suggested level  ALevel Physics by ROGER MUNCASTER, 2^{nd} Edition.
Understanding Physics for Advance Level by JIM BREITHAUPT, Published by Hutchinson, ISBN 0 09 1645816. 
SECTIONII
Modern physics
Quantum physics
Thermal radiations..
(Black body radiation) 
Stefan Boltzmann, Wien and Planck’s law….. Consequences. 
The quantization of energy.  Quantum numbers; Correspondence principle. 
Photoelectric effect.  
. Einstein’s photon theory.  Explanation of photoelectric effect. 
The Compton Effect  Analytical treatment. 
Line Spectra  Quantitative discussion; Explanation using quantum theory. 
Suggested level  Ch: 49 H.R.K. 
WAVE NATURE OF MATTER
Wave behavior of particles  De Broglie hypothesis 
Testing De Broglie’s hypothesis  DavissonGermer Expt and explanation. 
Waves, Waves Packets and Particles  Localizing a wave in space and time 
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle (HUP) HUP for momentumposition and Energy Time;  HUP applied to single slit diffraction 
Wave Function  Definition, relation to probability of particle. 
Schrödinger Equation.  To be presented without derivation, and applied to specific cases e.g. step potentials and free part particle, Barrier. Tunneling (basic idea). 
State and Energy Levels
Trapped Particles and probability Densiti Barrier tunneling.  Particles in a well, Probability density using wave function of states. Discussion of Particle in a well. 
The correspondence principles  Discussion. 
Dual nature of matter
(waves and particles) 
Discussion 
Suggested level  Ch.50 H.R.K 
ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF HYDROGEN
TOPICS  SCOPE 
Bohr’s theory  Derivation and quantitative discussion; Frank Hertz experiment.
Energy levels of electrons; Atomic Spectrum. 
Angular Momentum of Electrons  (Vector atom model) orbital angular momentum; Space quantization, Orbital angular momentum & magnetism, Bohr’s magnetor 
Electron Spin  Dipole in nonuniform field; SternGerlach experiment, Experimental results. 
Suggested Level:  Ch.51H.R.K 
ATOMIC PHYSICS
Xray Spectrum  Continuous and Discrete Spectrum Explanation 
Xray & Atomic number  Moseley’s Law. 
Development of periodic table  Pauli exclusion principle and its use in developing the periodic table. 
Laser  Basic Concepts & Working of HeNe Laser. 
Suggested Level:  Ch.52 H.R.K 
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Discovering the nucleus  Review. Rutherford’s Experiment and interpretation. 
Some Nuclear Properties  (a) Nuclear systematic (Mass No., Atomic No. Isotopes.
(b) Nuclear Force (Basic Ideas). (c) Nuclear Radii. (d) Nuclear Masses Binding Energies Mass defect. (e) Nuclear Spin & Magnetism. 
Radioactive decay  Law of decay; half life, mean life. 
Alpha decay  Basic ideas. 
Beta decay  Basic ideas 
Measuring ionizing radiation (Units)  Curie, Rad: etc. 
Natural Radioactivity  Discussion, radioactive dating. 
Nuclear Reactions  Basic ideas e.g. reaction energy, Q. Value, exothermicendothermic.
(Some discussion of reaction energies in the contact of nuclear stationery states). 
Suggested Level  Ch. 54 H.R.K. 
.ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS
Nuclear Fission  Basic process: Liquid drop model, description, Theory of N. Fission 
Nuclear Reactors  Basic Principles. 
Thermonuclear Fusion (T.N.F.)  Basic process; T.N.F. in stars. 
Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion  Basic Ideas and requirements for a T.N. reactor. 
Suggested Level;  Ch.54 H.R.K. 
PAPER:D 25 Marks
Note: The candidate must perform at least 50% of the practical of each sub section.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
 Surface tension by capillary rise
 ‘g’ by compound pendulum
 Elastic constants of a wire by a spiral spring
 Modulus of rigidity of a wire by dynamic method
 Modulus of rigidity of a wire using Barton’s apparatus
 Modulus of rigidity of a wire using Maxwell’s needle
HEAT
 Calibration of a thermo couple by a potentiometer
 Mechanical equivalent of heat by Calendar and Barne’s apparatus
SOUND
 Frequency of A.C. using sonometer.
 Velocity of sound by Kundr’s tube.
OPTICS
 Vertical distance by a sextant
 Wavelength of sodium light by Newton’s rings
 Wavelength of sodium light by diffraction grating
 Wavelength of sodium light by Fresenel’s biprism
 Resolving power of a diffraction grating
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
 Measurement of high resistance and capacitance of a capacitor by neon bulb.
 IH Curve by Magnetometer
 Conversion of a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter.
 Conversion of a moving coil galvanometer into a voltmeter.
 Calibration of an ammeter by a potentiometer.
 Calibration of a voltmeter by a potentiometer.
 Low resistance by Carey Foster Bridge.
 Charge sensitivity of a ballistic galvanometer
 Comparison of capacities by ballistic galvanometer
 Measurement of magnetic flux by a search coil
PAPER:E 25 Marks
Note: The candidate must perform at least 50% of the practical of each sub section.
MODERN PHYSICS
 Work function of metal using sodium light.
 Determine Plank’s constant ‘h’ by cutoff method using a photo Cell.
 Measurement of Planck’s constant using a spectrometer.
 Determination of e/m of electron by deflection method.
 Determination of ionization potential of Mercury.
 To study the characteristics of an acceptor circuit.
 To study the characteristics of a rejecter circuit.
 Characteristic curves of a GeigerMuller tube.
 To determine the Dead time of a GeigerMuller tube.
 Absorption coefficient of betaparticles using a Geiger counter.
 Stopping power for alpha particles.
 Range of alpha particles.
ELECTRONICS
 Characteristics of a semiconductor diode
 Setting up half and fullwaverectifier.
 To study the input and output static characteristics of a PNP transistor.
 To study the input and output static characteristics of a NPN transistor.
 Transistor as a single stage amplifier and its voltage gain.
 Transistor as an oscillator.
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